Hypertension: Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Obesity increases the risk of the development of hypertension. Obesity-associated arterial hypertension is characterized by stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, reaction of the renin-angiotensin system, and sodium retention, among other abnormalities.

Obesity is characterized with increased blood flow, vasodilatation, cardiac output, and hypertension. Although cardiac index does not increase, cardiac output and glomerular filtration rate do. However, renal sodium retention also increases, leading to the cause of hypertension.

The risk factors of hypertension are age, smoking, diet, alcohol, cholesterol level, diabetes, ethnicity, family history, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, medication, recreation drugs. Regular physical activity decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease including high blood pressure, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, and depression. The prevention of hypertension is possible based on correct lifestyle and nutrition, starting from childhood age. The mediation that are used to treat high blood pressure are Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), calcium channel blockers, alpha blockers, alpha-beta blockers, beta blockers, aldosterone antagonists, renin inhibitors,  vasodilators, central-acting agents.

 

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