Diabetes: Types, Complications, Diet and Exercise

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that occurs due to the increase in high blood sugar level for a long period of time. Insulin is a hormone which is secreted from pancreases and helps to dissolve glucose into the cells to be used for energy. But due to the metabolic disorder our body doesn’t make enough or any insulin. Glucose stays in our blood and doesn’t reach our cells. The increase in the glucose level in our body starts creating health problems.

Types of Diabetes

There are different types of Diabetes, but the most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.

Type 1 – In type 1 diabetes, body doesn’t make insulin. Immune system destroys the cells which makes insulin in pancreas. People those who are diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes need to take insulin daily to stay healthy. Type 1 Diabetes may appear at any age, most commonly these are diagnosed in children and young adults.

Type 2 – Type 2 is common type of diabetes. In this type of diabetes, body doesn’t make insulin properly. Type 2 diabetes may appear at any age, even at childhood but most often middle-aged and older people are diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes –

Gestational diabetes may occur in women during pregnancy. In most of the cases Gestational diabetes goes after the baby is born but it increases the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life.

Diet and Exercise

Dietary information or Nutritional advice are very important to maintain or improve health through the use of appropriate and healthy food choices.

  1. Eat three meals a day.
  2. Each meal should include starchy carbohydrate foods - eg, bread, pasta, chapatis, potatoes, yam, noodles, rice and cereals.
  3. Reduce the fat in the diet, especially saturated fats. By the use of unsaturated fats or oils, especially mono-unsaturated fats - eg, olive oil and rapeseed oil fat in the diet can be reduced.
  4. Increase the amount of fruit and vegetables in your day to day diet. Divide it into at least five portions a day.
  5. Eat more beans and lentils - eg, kidney beans, butter beans, chickpeas or red and green lentils.
  6. Eat at least two portions of oily fish a week - eg, mackerel, sardines, salmon and pilchards. Limit sugar and sugary foods.
  7. Reduce the amount of salt in the diet to 6 g or less per day.
  8. Avoid drinking of alcohol or minimize the quantity of consumption.
  9. Don't use the foods or drinks which causes diabetes.

physical activity - First, arrange your exercise into smaller sessions and spread throughout the day.30 minutes of moderate physical activity in a day is mandatory to stay healthy. Walk daily for at least 20 minutes. Ride your bike. Swim laps.

Focus on permanent changes to your eating and exercise habits to keep your weight in a healthy range,

Medication is also a good option. Oral diabetes drugs such as metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes — but healthy lifestyle choices remain essential. Get your blood sugar checked at least once a year to check that you haven't developed type 2 diabetes.


  • Diabetic Neuropathy
  • Causes of Diabetes
  • Pathophysiology of Diabetes
  • Diagnosis and Prognosis for DM
  • Prevention and Management
  • Major Clinical Trials and Research

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