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26th World Congress on Human Health Metabolism-Cancer, Obesity, Diabetes , will be organized around the theme “Establish a new culture for learning in the field of human health metabolism”
Human Health Metabolism 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Human Health Metabolism 2019
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The word metabolism refers to all chemical transformations that occurs within the cells of living organisms. enzyme-catalyzed reactions include digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells and allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments.
Metabolism consists of both Catabolism and Anabolism
Catabolism: Catabolism is a process in which larger molecules are broken down into smaller ones, releasing energy.
Anabolism: Anabolism is a process in which the assembly of small molecules are created into larger ones and then stored as energy in newly formed chemical bonds.
- Track 1-1Diabetes and Glucose Metabolism
- Track 1-2Metabolism Pathways
- Track 1-3Energy Conservation: Mechanisms of ATP Synthesis
- Track 1-4Oxidative Phosphorylation: The Main Mechanism of ATP Synthesis in Most Human Cells
- Track 1-5Glycolysis
Body’s metabolic rate can be divided into three parts. Basal metabolic rate (BMR), Energy used during physical activity, Thermic effect of food.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) – This is defined as the amount of kilojoules (kJ) burned at rest. BMR also includes the energy the body uses to keep all its systems functioning correctly. It is responsible for the largest amount of energy expended daily (50-80 per cent of your daily energy use).
Energy used during physical activity - This component contributes 20 per cent of daily energy use for example 30–45 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per day.
Thermic effect of food - Is the energy we use to eat, digest and metabolize food.
- Track 2-1Influences on BMR
- Track 2-2Metabolism and age-related weight gain
- Track 2-3Obesity
With the increase in age people tend to put on fat, because the body slowly loses muscle. The person with more muscle mass will burn more kilojoules. Muscle tissue has a large appetite for kilojoules.
- Track 3-1Obesity
- Track 3-2Diseases associated with obesity
- Track 3-3Diet and nutrition
BMR is influenced by multiple factors which includes
Body size - larger adult bodies have more metabolizing tissue and a larger BMR.
Less amount of muscle tissue – Lean Muscle burns kilojoules rapidly.
Amount of fat present in the body – Fat cells burn fewer kilojoules as compared to the other tissues and organs of the body.
Crash dieting, starving or fasting- BMR can drop by up to 15 per cent by eating too few kilojoules which encourages the body to slow the metabolism to conserve energy.
Age – Age is a great factor in metabolism. Increase in the age slows loss of muscle tissue, but also due to hormonal and neurological changes.
Hormonal and nervous controls – BMR is mostly controlled by the nervous and hormonal systems. The process of burning of kilojoules( slowly of rapidly) is influenced by hormonal imbalances.
Infection or Diseases – To create an immune response and to build new tissues body has to work harder which results in the increase of BMR.
Drugs –BMR can also increase due to Some drugs, like caffeine or nicotine.
- Track 4-1Amount of physical activity
- Track 4-2Dietary deficiencies
- Track 4-3Genetic predisposition
Genes are the blueprints for the proteins and proteins are responsible for the digestion and metabolism of our food. Sometimes, a faulty gene resulting in a metabolic disorder. By keeping close attention to diet and by taking medical supervision, genetic metabolic disorders can be managed.
Some genetic disorders of metabolism include:
Fructose intolerance - Is the inability to break down fructose.
Galactosaemia – Galactosaemia is the inability to convert the carbohydrate galactose into glucose.
phenylketonuria (PKU) – phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused due to the inability to convert the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine. The increase in the levels of phenylalanine in the blood can cause brain damage. The foods containing High-protein artificial sweetener aspartame must be avoided.
- Track 5-1Metabolic Disorder
- Track 5-2Inborn error of metabolism
- Track 5-3Glycogen storage diseases
- Track 5-4Niemann – Pick Diseases
- Track 5-5Myopathy
- Track 5-6Gaucher’s Diseases
Hormones helps to regulate the metabolism. Some of the most common hormonal disorders are concerned with the thyroid. To regulate many metabolic processes thyroid secretes hormones, including energy expenditure (the rate at which kilojoules are burned).
Thyroid disorders include:
Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) - Due to the slow release of hormone by thyroid gland metabolism slows down. Symptoms of hypothyroidism includes uncontrol weight gain, lethargy, depression and constipation
Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) – Due to the release of larger quantity of hormone by thyroid gland metabolism speeds up. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism results in the cause of less appetite, weight loss, nervousness and diarrhea.
- Track 6-1Hashimoto’s disease
- Track 6-2Graves’ disease
Obesity in a person is caused due to the excess body fat. obesity can increase a risk of number of diseases and health problems, including high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. Obesity is usually defined using a ratio of height to weight called body mass index (BMI), which calculates the amount of the fat present in the person's body.
- Track 7-1Glucose Intolerance
- Track 7-2High blood pressure
- Track 7-3Type 2 diabetes
- Track 7-4Cholestrol
- Track 7-5Coronary Heart Disease
- Track 7-6Gallbladder disease
- Track 7-7Retinopathy
Obesity occurs due to unhealthy diet, regularly eating and drinking of more calories than they use. Besides a person's eating behavior, number of factors results to obesity, which includes a lack of physical activity, a lack of sleep, genetics and the use of certain medications that can cause gain in the weight, such as corticosteroids, antidepressants or some seizure medications.
These health conditions also can lead to weight gain, including:
1. polycystic ovary syndrome - polycystic ovary syndrome can affect up to 10 percent of women of childbearing age and can also lead to excess body hair and reproductive problems.
2.Cushing's syndrome- Cushing's syndrome results from an overproduction of the hormone cortisol by the adrenal glands and is characterized by weight gain in the upper body, face and neck.
3.Prader-Willi syndrome, a rare genetic condition in which people never feel full, and so they want to eat constantly.
- Track 8-1Hypothyroidism
- Track 8-2Osteoarthritis
- Track 8-3Gallstones
- Track 8-4Sleep apnea
A good dietitian can help to achieve a healthy weight and adopt healthier eating habits. Dietary changes for a short period of time is not the best way to keep weight off permanently. 5 to 10 percent decrease in the body weight include improvements in blood pressure, cholesterol levels and blood sugars. Make small changes to your eating habits, reduce the number of calories containing food. Regular physical activity (60 to 90 minutes) is very important.
- Track 9-1Weight-loss surgery & medications
- Track 9-2Bariatric surgery
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that occurs due to the increase in high blood sugar level for a long period of time. Insulin is a hormone which is secreted from pancreases and helps to dissolve glucose into the cells to be used for energy. But due to the metabolic disorder our body doesn’t make enough or any insulin. Glucose stays in our blood and doesn’t reach our cells. The increase in the glucose level in our body starts creating health problems.
- Track 10-1Type 1 diabetes
- Track 10-2Type 2 diabetes
- Track 10-3Gestational diabetes
- Track 10-4Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes
- Track 10-5Monogenic diabetes
There are different types of Diabetes, but the most common types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes.
Type 1 – In type 1 diabetes, body doesn’t make insulin. Immune system destroys the cells which makes insulin in pancreas. People those who are diagnosed with Type 1 Diabetes need to take insulin daily to stay healthy. Type 1 Diabetes may appear at any age, most commonly these are diagnosed in children and young adults.
Type 2 – Type 2 is common type of diabetes. In this type of diabetes, body doesn’t make insulin properly. Type 2 diabetes may appear at any age, even at childhood but most often middle-aged and older people are diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes.
Gestational diabetes –
Gestational diabetes may occur in women during pregnancy. In most of the cases Gestational diabetes goes after the baby is born but it increases the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life.
- Track 11-1Cardiovascular disease
- Track 11-2Nerve damage (neuropathy)
- Track 11-3Kidney damage (nephropathy)
- Track 11-4Eye damage (retinopathy)
- Track 11-5Foot damage
- Track 11-6Depression
Dietary information or Nutritional advice are very important to maintain or improve health through the use of appropriate and healthy food choices.
- Eat three meals a day.
- Each meal should include starchy carbohydrate foods - eg, bread, pasta, chapatis, potatoes, yam, noodles, rice and cereals.
- Reduce the fat in the diet, especially saturated fats. By the use of unsaturated fats or oils, especially mono-unsaturated fats - eg, olive oil and rapeseed oil fat in the diet can be reduced.
- Increase the amount of fruit and vegetables in your day to day diet. Divide it into at least five portions a day.
- Eat more beans and lentils - eg, kidney beans, butter beans, chickpeas or red and green lentils.
- Eat at least two portions of oily fish a week - eg, mackerel, sardines, salmon and pilchards. Limit sugar and sugary foods.
- Reduce the amount of salt in the diet to 6 g or less per day.
- Avoid drinking of alcohol or minimize the quantity of consumption.
- Don't use the foods or drinks which causes diabetes.
physical activity - First, arrange your exercise into smaller sessions and spread throughout the day.30 minutes of moderate physical activity in a day is mandatory to stay healthy. Walk daily for at least 20 minutes. Ride your bike. Swim laps.
Focus on permanent changes to your eating and exercise habits to keep your weight in a healthy range,
Medication is also a good option. Oral diabetes drugs such as metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes — but healthy lifestyle choices remain essential. Get your blood sugar checked at least once a year to check that you haven't developed type 2 diabetes.
- Track 12-1Breath exercise
- Track 12-2Weight Management
- Track 12-3Yoga
The uncontrolled growth and division of cells which causes due to cellular changes is known as cancer. Cancer is a broad term. Some types of cancer cause cells to grow and divide at a slower rate while other cause rapid cell growth. Certain forms of cancer result in visible growths called tumors, while others, such as leukemia, do not. Once the cell dies body can replace it with a newer cell that functions better. Cancerous cells can form tumors and cells lack the components that instruct them to stop dividing and to die. By using oxygen and nutrients they build up in the body that would usually nourish other cells. Cancerous cells start from one area, then spread via the lymph nodes. These are mass of immune cells located every part of the body.
- Track 13-1Chemotherapy
- Track 13-2Hormone therapy
- Track 13-3Immunotherapy
- Track 13-4Radiation Therapy
The most common type of cancer is breast cancer, followed by lung and prostate cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute. Each year, more than 30,000 to 40,000 people in the country receive a diagnosis of one of the following types of cancer: Bladder, Colon and rectal, Pancreatic, Kidney, Leukemia, Liver.
- Track 14-1Melanoma
- Track 14-2Endometrial
- Track 14-3Thyroid
Doctors classify cancer by its location in the body and the tissues that it forms in. There is a minute difference between sarcomas mainly develop in bones or soft tissues, while carcinomas form in cells that cover internal or external surfaces in the body. Adenocarcinomas form in the breast whereas Basal cell carcinomas develop in the skin. Metastasis is when the cancerous cells spread to other parts of the body. At a time, a person can also suffer from more than one type of cancer.
- Track 15-1Sarcomas
- Track 15-2Carcinomas
Cancer can be caused due to various reasons, some are preventable, and some are non-preventable. Risk factors which may cause cancer include consumption of heavy alcohol, heavy body weight, physical inactivity, but this type of causes is preventable. Other causes of cancer are not preventable. Age is the most significant unpreventable risk factor. According to the American Cancer Society, 87 percent of cancer is diagnosed by doctors in the U.S. in people ages 50 years or older.
Development of new medications and treatment technologies are coming to the market due to innovative research. Doctors usually prescribe treatments based on the type of cancer, its stage at diagnosis, and the person's overall health.
- Chemotherapy aims to kill cancerous cells with medications that target rapidly dividing cells. The Drugs can be used to shrink tumors, but they can cause severe side effects.
- Immunotherapy uses medications and other treatments to boost the immune system and encourage it to fight cancerous cells.
- Radiation therapy uses high-dose radiation to kill cancerous cells. Sometimes radiation is also suggested by doctor which is used to shrink a tumor before surgery or reduce tumor-related symptoms.
- Stem cell transplant can be especially beneficial for people with blood-related cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma. Red or white blood cells are removed, that chemotherapy or radiation has destroyed. The cells are then kept back into the body by lab technicians.
- Surgery is often a part of a treatment plan when a person has a cancerous tumor. A lymph node can also be removed by a surgeon to reduce or prevent the disease's spread.
- Track 16-1Precision medicine, or personalized medicine
- Track 16-2Targeted therapies
- Track 16-3Hormone therapy
Healthy populations live longer, are more productive, it also makes an important contribution to economic progress. A good health is a key to human happiness. By doing research, giving education and training to people on health problems that are related to environment. The goal of improving health for all people by reducing the environmental problems that lead to avoidable disease, disabilities and deaths.
WHO aims to support government for the huge investment on health, and also ensure that health is prioritized within overall economic and development plans.
- Track 17-1Global Environmental Health Research
- Track 17-2Global Environmental Health Translation
- Track 17-3Global Environmental Health Scientific Capacity
Climate change affects human health in many ways, environmental consequences of climate change, such as extreme heat waves, rising sea-levels, changes in precipitation resulting in flooding and droughts, intense hurricanes, and degradation in the air quality, affect directly or indirectly the physical, social, and psychological health of humans. Changes in the greenhouse gas alter the global climate and bring about human health consequences. The federal government is working to resolve these issues by taking initiatives in many fields, research, and by inventing new techniques and tools.
- Track 18-1Asthma, Respiratory Allergies, and Airway Diseases
- Track 18-2Cancer
- Track 18-3Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke
- Track 18-4Effects of Heat
- Track 18-5Mental Health and Stress-Related Disorders
- Track 18-6Neurological Diseases and Disorders
- Track 18-7Vectorborne and Zoonotic Diseases
- Track 18-8Waterborne Diseases
The common diseases associated with modern civilization for example - cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, depression, anxiety, chronic respiratory disease, liver disease occurs mainly due to lack of physical activity, un-natural diet, tobacco smoking, air pollution, social isolation, use of alcohol and other drugs. Sometimes medicine often defines diseases in accordance with the organ system affected. Our modern way of leading life is affecting multiple organ systems. Every organ is affected in case of diabetes.
- Track 19-1Cardiovascular disease
- Track 19-2Diabetes
- Track 19-3Cancer
- Track 19-4Depression, Anxiety
- Track 19-5Chronic respiratory disease
- Track 19-6Liver disease