Cancer: Types, development and Treatment

The uncontrolled growth and division of cells which causes due to cellular changes is known as cancer. Cancer is a broad term. Some types of cancer cause cells to grow and divide at a slower rate while other cause rapid cell growth. Certain forms of cancer result in visible growths called tumors, while others, such as leukemia, do not. Once the cell dies body can replace it with a newer cell that functions better. Cancerous cells can form tumors and cells lack the components that instruct them to stop dividing and to die. By using oxygen and nutrients they build up in the body that would usually nourish other cells. Cancerous cells start from one area, then spread via the lymph nodes. These are mass of immune cells located every part of the body.

Types

The most common type of cancer is breast cancer, followed by lung and prostate cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute. Each year, more than 30,000 to 40,000 people in the country receive a diagnosis of one of the following types of cancerBladder, Colon and rectal, Pancreatic, Kidney, Leukemia, Liver.

Doctors classify cancer by its location in the body and the tissues that it forms in. There is a minute difference between sarcomas mainly develop in bones or soft tissues, while carcinomas form in cells that cover internal or external surfaces in the body. Adenocarcinomas form in the breast whereas Basal cell carcinomas develop in the skin. Metastasis is when the cancerous cells spread to other parts of the body. At a time, a person can also suffer from more than one type of cancer.

Treatments

Development of new medications and treatment technologies are coming to the market due to innovative research. Doctors usually prescribe treatments based on the type of cancer, its stage at diagnosis, and the person's overall health.

  1. Chemotherapy aims to kill cancerous cells with medications that target rapidly dividing cells. The Drugs can be used to shrink tumors, but they can cause severe side effects.
  2. Immunotherapy uses medications and other treatments to boost the immune system and encourage it to fight cancerous cells.
  3. Radiation therapy uses high-dose radiation to kill cancerous cells. Sometimes radiation is also suggested by doctor which is used to shrink a tumor before surgery or reduce tumor-related symptoms.
  4. Stem cell transplant can be especially beneficial for people with blood-related cancers, such as leukemia or lymphoma. Red or white blood cells are removed, that chemotherapy or radiation has destroyed. The cells are then kept back into the body by lab technicians.
  5. Surgery is often a part of a treatment plan when a person has a cancerous tumor. A lymph node can also be removed by a surgeon to reduce or prevent the disease's spread.

 

  • Chemotherapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy

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